Citation (MLA & APA)

Modern Language Association of America (MLA)

¡  No change to in-text citations : (Anderson 7)

¡  Anderson, John. Intergenerational Dynamics: Opportunities and              Challenges. Toronto: U of Toronto  Press, 2007. Print.

¡  Changes to Works Cited:

§  Requires listing medium of publication in every entry(print is no longer the default)

§  No longer recommends including URLs for Web publications

§  Requires issue + volume number for journal entries

§  Requires italics and not underlining for published texts

MLA Works cited

       Book in series:

       Anderson, Iain. This is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties , and        American             Culture. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2007. Print. The  Arts      and        Intellectual Life in Mod. Amer.

       Translated book published under real name and pseudonym and found on Web:

       Bakhtin, M.M. (see also Volosinov, V.N.). The Dialogic Imagination: Four              Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and          Holquist. Austin:               U of Texas P, 1981. Google Book Search.  Web. 3 Dec. 2007.

       Volosinov, V.N. [M.M.Bakhtin]. Marxism and the Philosophy of                Language. Trans. Ladislav Matejka and I. R. Titunik. Cambridge:         Harvard UP, 1986. Google Book Search. Web. 3 Dec. 2007.

Journal article:

Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and Book of            Everything.” PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print.

¡  Newspaper article (if city is not in title, insert italicized after the name in square brackets: StarPhoenix [Saskatoon]; write only first page and a plus sign)

Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.

No author given

“It Barks! It Kicks! It Scores!” Newsweek  30 July 2001: 12. Print.

¡  Web publications.

§  Include URL only if reader may need it to find or professor requires it.

§  Give URL immediately after the date of access, period, and space.

§  Enclose URL in angle brackets followed by a period.

§  Consider downloading or printing research material to verify it.

Antin, David. Interview by Charles Bernstein. Dalkey Archive Press. Dalkey Archive P, n.d. Web.  21 Aug. 2007.

Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive. Lib. Of Cong. 28 Sept. 2007. Web. 20 Nov.                 2007.  <>.

“La Ronge, Saskatchewan. “ Map. Google Maps. Google, 15 May 2008.. Web. 15 May 2008.

Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.”       Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.

¡  Other media

Air Canada. Advertisement. CNN. 15 May             2008. Television.

Matuozzi, Robert. “Archive Trauma.” Archive     Trouble. MLA Annual Convention. Hyatt               Regency, Chicago. 29 Dec. 2007. Address.

Smith, Tom. Message to the author. 20 Aug.       2009. E-mail.

American Psychological Association (APA)

¡  No change to in-text citations:  (Anderson, 2007, p. 7)


¡  Anderson, J. (2007). Intergenerational dynamics: Opportunities and       challenges. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

¡  Changes to References:

       Include DOI  (Digital Object Identifier) instead of URL

       Include DOI (10+ prefix and suffix separated by slash), when available, for print sources

       Include URL if no DOI available (Retrieved from http://...)

       Do not include retrieval dates unless material (such as wikis) change over time

¡  Journal article:

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support,       marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill                 patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:     10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

¡  Journal article (no DOI available):

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence             and self-esteem mediate between perceived early                 parental love and adult happiness.  E-Journal of Applied                Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from       


¡  Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of print book:

¡  Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder              sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth                 [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/0071393722

Electronic only book:

¡  O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values.               Retrieved from


¡  Anonymous. (2001, 30 July). It barks! It kicks! It scores! Newsweek, p.12.              

Online newspaper article:

¡  Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain     agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from       


¡  Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap            radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion:

¡  Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from